Gall Bladder Stone
Gallstones are lumps or stones that develop in the gallbladder or bile duct. Some of the chemicals which exist in the gallbladder, such as cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate, harden into either one large stone or many small ones.according to DR.S.K PATHAK gallstones is a 100% neurological
According to Medilexicon's medical dictionary, a gallstone is "A concretion in the gallbladder or a bile duct, composed chiefly of a mixture of cholesterol,calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate, occasionally as a pure stone composed of just one of these substances".
It is estimated that about 20 million Americans have gallstones. A study revealed that the prevalence of gallstones in adults of industrialized countries is approximately 10% and is showing a tendency to rise.
The gallbladder is a small sac located on the right-hand side of the body, on the underside of the liver. Gall (bile) is a greenish-brown liquid which the liver produces. Gall is stored and concentrated in the gallbladder. Gall goes into the small intestine via the bile ducts to facilitate the digestion, mainly of fats. Every time we eat some gall is released into the intestines. The bile duct is a narrow tube.
When the chemicals in the gallbladder, cholesterol, calcium bilirubinate, and calcium carbonate are out of balance gallstones may form. There are two main types of gallstones:
Cholesterol gallstones - these may form if there is too much cholesterol in the bile. They are the main type of gallstones in the UK and the USA.
Pigment gallstones - these form when the bile has too much bilirubin. They are more common among patients who have liver disease, infected bile tubes or blood disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia.
SYMPTOMS OF GALL STONES
Pain in the right shoulder
Biliary colic - Sometimes the gallstones may pass down through the bile duct into the duodenum. When this happens the patient may experience biliary colic -a painful condition. The pain is felt in the upper part of the abdomen, but can also exist in the center of the abdomen, or a little to the right of it. Pain is more common about an hour after eating, especially if the patient has had a high-fat meal. The pain will be constant and will last a few hours, and then subside. Some patients will have non-stop pain for 24 hours, while others may experiences waves of pain.
Infection - If the gallstones have caused a gallbladder infection the patient may have a fever and experience shivering. In the majority of gallstone infection cases the patient will be hospitalized and have the gallstone surgically removed.
Jaundice - If the gallstone leaves the gallbladder and gets stuck in the bile duct it may block the passage of bile into the intestine. The bile will then seep into the bloodstream and the patient will show signs of jaundice - the skin and the whites of the eyes will be yellow. In most cases this complication will require the surgical removal of the gallstone. Some patients are lucky and the gallstone eventually passes into the intestine.
Pancreatitis - If a small gallstone passes through the bile duct and blocks the pancreatic duct, or causes a reflux of liquids and bile into the duct, the patient may develop pancreatitis.
CAUSES OF GALLSTONES
Over weight/obese people, especially women. A study revealed that a bulging midriff almost doubles a woman's chances of developing gallstones and the need for surgery to remove them. Women who have been pregnant
People who have recently lost lots of weight.
Intentionally losing weight and then regaining it may increase men's risk for gallstones later in life.
Women taking oral contraceptives.
Women undergoing high-dose estrogen therapy
People with a close relative who has had gallstones.
A study revealed that a gene variant significantly increases the risk of developing gallstones.
People whose intake of dietary fat is high.
Twice as many women get gallstones than men.
People over 60 years of age.
Native American Indians.
People who take statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs).
People with diabetes.
Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women during the menopause is linked to a higher risk of gallbladder problems. A study found that HRT administered by skin patches or gels poses a smaller risk than HRT given orally.
DIAGNOSIS OF GALLSTONES
In many cases gallstones are discovered by accident when the patient is being treated for something else. A doctor may suspect gallstones after a cholesterol test,an ultrasound scan, a blood test, an ultrasound scan, or even an X-ray. Blood tests may be used to look for signs of infection, obstruction, pancreatitis, or jaundice.
A dye is either injected into the blood stream so that it concentrates into the bile ducts or gallbladder, or it is inserted straight into the bile ducts suing an endoscope (ERCP - endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography). The dyes hows up on X-rays. ERCP is also used to locate and remove stones in the bile duct.
The doctor will then be able to look at the X-rays and identify possible gallbladder or bile duct disorders, such as pancreatitis, cancer of the pancreas, or gallstones. The X-rays will indicate to the doctor whether the dylesis going to where it should go - i.e. the liver, bile ducts, intestines and gallbladder. If the dye does is not present in one of these areas it generally means that the gallstone is causing a blockage. An expert will have a better idea of where the gallstone is located.
CT scan (Computerized tomography scan)
This is a non-invasive X-ray that produces cross-section pictures of the inside of the human body.
Cholescintigraphy (HIDA scan)
A small amount of harmless radioactive material is injected into the patient.This is absorbed by the gallbladder, which is then stimulated to contract. This test may diagnose abnormal contractions of the gallbladder or an obstruction of the bile duct.
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